About VEGF Receptors:
VEGF stands for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, and VEGFR includes the receptor. VEGF is a signaling protein structure created in the cells and is vital in the formation and maintenance of blood vessel structures and the circulatory system. The VEGFs system allows oxygen into the tissue after an activity like exercise, or after an injury. It also creates blood vessels in an embryo and also creates new blood vessels when an old one has been blocked or broken. The system consists of a family of six polypeptides or proteins, VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, and PlGF, that regulate blood and lymphatic vessel development. There are three main types of VEGF receptors, two which regulate the formation of new blood cells and vascular permeability, and one that governs the formation of lymphatic vessels. These receptors are part of the tyrosine kinases, a protein enzyme family, and part of the platelet-derived growth system. Due to the way the VEGF system works, it plays a significant role in the progression of illnesses such as cancer as it lets more oxygen into the tumor. This makes the VEGFR system a target for cancer treatment.
VEGF Receptors Function
The VEGF proteins bind to the VEGF receptors, and this causes cellular responses. The receptors lie in the surface of the cell. When the proteins bind to them, they are activated through a process of dimerization, where two molecules react, and transphosphorylation, a chemical reaction. The purpose of these reactions is to mediate cellular responses. One receptor modulates signaling. Another appears to act as a decoy receptor that can hide the protein from binding. When an embryo is forming in the womb, creating tiny blood vessels, this process is of particular importance. Also, proteins C and D can bind exclusively to the third receptor, which is vital in the lymphatic capillary formation. The VEGF system is required to provide a much-needed balance to the production of new blood vessels, as well as maintaining and upgrading the existing ones to work to full efficiency. The VEGFR offers regulation on various levels and allows information to flow between cells. It is, in essence, a multifaceted web of intricate design.
VEGF Receptors Mechanisms
VEGFRs have been discovered on many different types of cells, and these receptors they all talk to each other by converting intracellular signals from cell to cell throughout the body in various ways. Some of the cells they are found on including vascular endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells, monocytes, and macrophages, vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. This makes the receptors abundant within the body at a fundamental level.
There is still a lot of work that needs to be done to understand the VEGF system in order to create better cancer treatment. However, there is some work being done on anti-VEGF medicines as potential cancer treatments. Medical scientists are investigating neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against VEGF and VEGFR. Also, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase are being researched and other things such as decoy receptors to fool the system. But, this is all in trial and needs more investigation.