About TUBG / Tubulin Gamma:
Microtubules are made of two predominant proteins known as alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. These two make up the tubulin heterodimer, which is also microtubules' main building block. However, recent evidence shows that there is another member of the tubulin family, tubulin gamma.
Like tubulin beta and tubulin alpha, tubulin gamma is necessary for the functioning of microtubules. However, tubulin gamma is not a component of the microtubule. Instead, this element is found at the organizing center of the microtubule. Tubulin gamma plays a role in microtubule assembly nucleation and microtubule polarity establishment.
Tubulin gamma was initially discovered in heat-sensitive screen suppressors as tubulin beta mutated in fungus.
Tubulin gamma binds to the microtubules' minus-end and some to the lattice. Additionally, in most eukaryotes, tubulin gamma contains five GCPs: GCP2, GCP3, GCP4, GCP5, and GCP5. Tubulin gamma is also described as GCP1 even though it does not resemble the GCP family sequence. Two tubulin gamma complexes can also be found in eukaryotes; gamma-TuSC and gamma-TuRC.
Tubulin Gamma Functions
Microtubule complexes have a significant role to play in the organization of intracellular functions and cell division in eukaryotes.
In cell division, tubulin gamma guides phragmoplast and mitotic spindle function and assembly. In animal cells, this complex plays a significant role in various functions, such as the transportation and positioning of organelles.
In plants, tubulin gamma plays a role in intracellular mobility. This function is mainly based on actin filaments and not the microtubule structure. The complex also helps in cell elongation by guiding the new cellulose microfibrils deposition. There are minor roles in cellular and intracellular functions.