About TBC1D / TBC1 Domain Family:
TBC1 Domain Family, also known as TBC1D1 is a protein that is founded in humans. It’s the founding member of a family of proteins that all share a 180- to 200-amino acid TBC domain and is associated with cell growth and cell differentiation. It’s also known as TBC, TBC1, and TBC1 domain family member 1
TBC1D1 has a specific role in regulating glucose transport through the muscles. In particular, it controls the stimuli-specific upstream signals that then lead to the regulation of glucose transport. Also reported to have a role in fatty acid metabolism, TBC1D1 is thought to be a central regulator of metabolic function in skeletal muscle.
TBC1 Domain Family Mechanism
The specifics of the exact molecular mechanism of TBC1D1 are not fully known at the time of writing, but a commonly accepted suggestion is that it is based on the better-known regulation of the close homolog AS160 (originally known as TBC1 Domain Family Member 4), which provides a mechanism linking AMPK signaling to glucose uptake.
TBCD1 primarily interacts with the proteins GCG (Glucagon), YWHAB (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Beta), YWHAZ (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Zeta), YWHAH (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Eta), and YWHAE (Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Epsilon), all members of the large 14-3-3 protein family, for which it may act as a GTPase-activating protein.
TBC1 Domain Family Structure
TBC1D1 is localized on chromosome 4p14, and is made up of 20 core exons, 19 of which contain coding sequences that are used to encode for an 1168 consensus amino acid protein.