About TAR DNA:
TAR DNA, or TAR DNA-binding protein 34 (also known as (TDP-43, transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa) is a protein in humans.
TAR DNA Function
TAR DNA is a transcriptional repressor, binding to chromosomal integrated TAR DNA with the purpose of repressing HIV Type 1 (HIV-1) transcription, binding to the trans-active response element DNA sequence of the viral genome. It also regulates alternative splicing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, a membrane protein and chloride channel. TAR DNA has multiple functions in transcriptional repression, pre-mRNA splicing, and translation regulation. It is also a key element of the non-homologous end joining enzymatic pathway that repairs DNA double-strand breaks in pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons
TAR DNA Mechanism
TAR DNA plays a role in processing molecules called messenger RNA (or mRNA) which are the genetic blueprints that lead to the creation of bproteins. TAR DNA, or the TDP-43 protein, cuts and rearranges mRNA molecules, controlling the production of various versions of different proteins.
TAR DNA Interactions
TAR DNA has a wide range of functions and interactions in multiple steps of RNA metabolism. As such, there are more than 6000 mRNA targets that can be associated with TAR DNA, which includes nearly 30% of the entire transcriptome. Specific RNA targets of TAR DNA include the 3′ UTRs of mRNAs/pre-mRNAs when localized to the cytoplasm.
TAR DNA Structure
TAR DNA is 414 amino acid residues long, consisting of 4 domains. These are an N-terminal domain spanning residues 1-76 with a well-defined fold, 2 folded RNA recognition motifs spanning residues 106-176 and 191-259, and an unstructured C-terminal domain spanning residues 274-414.