About SSX / Synovial Sarcoma, X Breakpoint:
Synovial sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the joints, muscles and other soft tissues. It is characterized by an abnormal growth of immature cells in the lining of the joint cavity called synovium. The main characteristic that distinguishes synovium from other types of cancers is its location inside a joint where it replaces normal tissue. Synovial sarcoma can be divided into two categories: high-grade (aggressive) or low-grade (slow-growing). There are currently no screening tests for synovial sarcoma, but treatment options are available to help control this condition.
The X Breakpoint or GC SSX2 gene causes Synovial Sarcoma at least 5% of the time and is prevalent in young people aged 12-30 years old. This gene causes cells to divide more rapidly than usual, which leads to an abnormal accumulation of cells within a joint or muscle. It can also make the surrounding area inflamed, causing pain.
Synovial Sarcoma, X Breakpoint Mechanism
Like other cancers caused by genetic changes, this condition starts when something goes wrong with the DNA inside cells’ nucleus that makes them not function properly anymore; these mistakes are called mutations, and they affect genes on chromosomes 17 and 22 as well as chromosome X in men (women have two copies of each X chromosome). The resulting imbalance deregulates cell growth leading it to grow abnormally fast out of control, ultimately causing cancerous tumors to grow throughout soft tissues. These mutations occur randomly and are not inherited but can be passed on to other generations if a mutation is found in the germline cells (egg or sperm).