About SOX / SRY (Sex Determining Region Y)-Box:
The SRY (Sex Determining Region Y)-box 2, which is often shorted to SOX2, is a transcription factor that functions to maintain the self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. It has been shown that SOX2 plays an essential function during the maintenance of embryonic and neural stem cells. It belongs to the broader Sox family of transcription factors.
They play a big role in multiple essential stages of the development of mammals. Within the protein family, you’ll find some highly conserved DNA binding domains, which are known as HMG (high-mobility group_ box domains. These contain around 80 amino acids. There is a lot of hope surrounding SOX2 because of the potential it has in the field of regenerative medicines.
This gene is essential for stem-cell maintenance in the central nervous systems. It also helps to regulate gene expression in the stomach. There’s a similar gene in humans that have been associated, when they’re mutated, with optic nerve hypoplasia and syndromic microphthalmia, which is a severe structural eye malformation.
SRY (Sex Determining Region Y)-Box Interactions
In terms of interactions, researchers have found that SOX2 interacts with PAX6, NPM1, and OCT4. There is also evidence that it works in cooperation to regulate things such as Rex1 and Oct3/4. SOX2 plays a big role in lung development and maintenance. If there’s an overexpression, then there could be an increase in intestinal and basal cells. When it works effectively, Sox2 will help to maintain self-renewal and the correct proportion of basal cells, though if there’s an overrepresentation, then problems can arise.