About RARRES / Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder:
Retinoic acid receptor responder protein is also known as chemerin or goes by the abbreviation RARRES2. It is a protein that's present in human beings and is encoded by the RARRES2 gene. Other names for this protein also include HP10433, and tazarotene-induced gene 2 protein (TIG2).
Retinoic acid receptor responder protein is a 14 kDa protein that is released as prochemerin in its inactive form. Activation of the protein stems from the cleavage of the C-terminus by various proteases.
Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder Function & Interactions
RARRES2 acts as a cell surface receptor and is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene. It is believed to provide many biologic effects as its function, primarily being a growth inhibitory and cell differentiation protein. This means it is often used to treat hyperproliferative dermatological diseases.
Retinoic acid receptor responder protein also acts as a ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor CMKLR1. It is discovered to help stimulate chemotaxis of dendritic cells and macrophages to the site of inflammation. The protein has also been found to stimulate lipolysis and is shown to have a role in both obesity and diabetes. Studies have shown that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance.
The protein also has a role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake, earning it the classification of an adipokine.
In the human body, RARRES2 is largely expressed in white adipose tissue, the liver, and the lungs. Additionally, its receptor - CMKLR1 - is mainly expressed in both immune cells and adipose tissues.