About RBBP / Retinoblastoma:
Retinoblastoma refers to a tumor that originates in the retina of a child's eye.
It is one form of cancer that develops when cells grow and multiply uncontrollably within a tissue, often leading to damage or changes in organs or tissues' normal anatomy and function. Notably, this condition affects activities such as eyesight.
The cause of retinoblastoma varies significantly across cases. Still, it can potentially result from; genetic mutations, exposure to radiation, infection with oncogenic viruses like HPV, genetics syndromes, pre-existing conditions including diabetes mellitus type II, and metabolic disorders, which may lead to hyperglycemia levels acting as an environmental risk factor for developing RBBP.
Retinoblastoma is cancer that affects the eye. It occurs when cells in the retina divide uncontrollably and form new, abnormal growths called retinoblasts (thus Retinoblastoma). Although there are many different types of Retinoblastomas, they all share one thing: uncontrolled cell division.
A single gene mutation can be responsible for this change; some signs include defects in chromosomes 13 or 18. The cause of these mutations is still unknown, but it's believed that environmental influences may also play a role. This type of cancer can affect both eyes simultaneously or just one at a time, with an equal chance for either occurrence happening if only one parent has had RBBP previously diagnosed on them.
The outer layer of the retina is made up of photoreceptors and nerve cells connected to the brain through optic nerves.
This structure allows our visual system to work by interpreting light, colour, shape, motion, depth, and other features to understand what we see around us at any given time. The inner layer of the eye consists mainly of blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood flow to various parts essential for sight, such as near-sightedness or farsightedness.
Underneath this vascular tissue sits a membrane called retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where new rods and cones are formed constantly throughout life, with every part being renewed for about 100 days. This process happens so quickly because there's a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood vessels.
Retinoblastoma interacts with a lot of different tissues and cells in the body. One source, Genetic Disease Gene Database (GDD), cites that Retinoblastomas cause interactions between tumour cells and blood vessels by secreting substances like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). This interaction is required to grow new tumours that keep growing through angiogenesis.