About Protein Kinase Akt1/PKB alpha:
The Kinase Akt1 alpha protein (often referred to as PKB) is a human enzyme that belongs to the AKT family of SH2 (Src homology 2-like)-containing serine/threonine kinases. It is also known as AKT1, AKT, CWS6, PKB, PKB-ALPHA, PRKBA, RAC, RAC-ALPHA, AKT serine/threonine kinase 1. It is identified as the oncogene within the retrovirus.
Kinase Akt1/PKB alpha Function
AKT1 is a catalytically inactive gene in serum-starved fibroblasts, and is related to AKT2. Both AKT1 and AKT2 are activated by the platelet-derived growth factor. AKT1’s fast activation, which happens via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain.
AKT is a critical mediator of the growth factor-induced neuronal survival within the nervous system, which can suppress apoptosis (the self-destruction of cells) through activating activating the serine/threonine kinase, which then phosphorylates and inactivates components of the apoptotic machinery. Studies on mice suggest that AKT1 is responsible for promoting growth (mice without it suffer a 25% reduction) via the IG1 receptor while mice without the gene also show resistance to cancer, particularly in relation to delayed tumor growth. Because AKT1 is a member of a class of genes known as oncogenes, mutations can cause normal cells to become cancerous.
Kinase Akt1/PKB alpha Structure and Interactions
AKT1 has a cytogenetic location of 14q32.33 at position 32.33 of chromosone 14. On a molecular location, its base pairs 104,769,349 to 104,795,748. Its ensembl genome database project number is ENSG00000142208 while its UniProt is P31749.
ATK1 is shown to interact with the following proteins; AKTIP, BRAF, BRCA1, C-RA, CDKN1B, CHUK, GAB2, HSP90AA1, ILK, KRT10, MAP2K4, MAP3K11, MAP3K8, MAPK14, MAPKAPK2, MARK2, MTCP1, MTOR, NP1, NR3A1, NR3C4, PKN2, PRKCQ, PDPK1, PLXNA1, TCL1A, TRIB3, TSC1, TSC2, and YWHAZ.
The protein kinase also interacts with molecules downstream of the dopamine D2 receptor. Its list of PBD ortholog coders are PDBe RCSB while PBD id codes includes; 1H10, 1UNP, 1UNQ, 1UNR, 2UVM, 2UZR, 2UZS, 3CQU, 3CQW, 3MV5, 3MVH, 3O96, 3OCB, 3OW4, 3QKK, 3QKL, 3QKM, 4EJN, 4EKK, 4EKL, 4GV1, 5KCV.
Kinase Akt1/PKB alpha Mechanisms
The AKT1 protein is a significant gene for mass growth in humans Its role in regulating cell growth and division (proliferation), differentiation, and cell survival are supported by cell-to-cell communication among nerve cells (neurons) and the formulation of memories.
AKT1 is linked to various health conditions and genetic changes, not only the Proteus syndrome. Studies have shown that variations of polymorphisms within the AKT1 gene are more commonly found in patients with schizophrenia than people without the condition. Alterations of the polymorphisms affected the nucleotides (DNA) within the AKT1, which could potentially mutate the function of AKT1 kinase.
Cancerous tumors also grow in part due tot he interactions of AKT1 with other genes. Ovarian cancer is a particularly noteworthy type of the disease that is affected by the mutations caused by AKT1. It is also suggested that the mechanisms of associated receptors interact with cannabis, which impacts the schizophrenia symptoms mentioned above.