About PDCD / Programmed Cell Death:
Programmed cell death, otherwise referred to as cellular suicide, is the end death of a cell that takes place as a result of the functions within it. Autophagy and apoptosis are the most common examples. It is carried out in a biological process for the purpose of sustaining the lifecycle and growth of an organism. It serves crucial developmental functions during plant and animal tissue growth.
Unlike necrosis, which is the death of a cell which was caused by external factors such as infection or perhaps even trauma, apoptosis and autophagy are programmed cell death, occurring as a biological process for the advantage of an organism. For instance, human embryos developing distinctions between fingers and toes is caused by apoptosis.
Other forms of PCD involve anoikis, which is similar to apoptosis aside from how its induction is processed, in this form, cornification which relates to cell death in the eyes, Wallerian degeneration, and ferroptosis, caused by iron deficiency.
The kinase MTOR is a critical regular of autophagy, which is promoted in its inactive form and suppressed in its inactive form. Extensive crosstalk exists between autophagy and apoptosis, for instance, fasting and nutrient deficiency causes autophagy functions to develop as a pro-survival mechanism. However, if this is excessive, it can lead to cell death.
Atrophic factors can also contribute to PCD, such as senility, bad nutrition, bad blood supply, and a decreased workload. The leading hypothesis that explains the function of programmed cell death is called neurotrophic theory.