About KCTD / Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain:
The N-terminal, cytoplasmic tetramerization region (T1) of voltage-gated K+ channels is known as the K+ channel tetramerization domain (T1). It identifies molecular factors for alpha-subunit subfamily-specific assembly into functional tetrameric channels. It is distantly connected to the Pfam PF00651 BTB/POZ domain.
The potassium channel family is the most varied of the ion channel family. They have an essential role in the formation of the action potential and neuronal excitability and plasticity. The potassium channel family comprises multiple functionally diverse isoforms that can be divided into two groups: the nearly non-inactivating 'delayed' group and the fast inactivating 'transient' group.
Potassium Channel Tetramerization Domain Mechanism
The voltage-dependent gating mechanism, channel conductance, and toxin binding properties of these proteins are relatively similar, with only minor amino acid changes generating variation.
Depending on the type of regulation, each type of K+ channel is activated by different signals and conditions: some open in response to plasma membrane depolarization; others in response to hyperpolarization or an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; some can be regulated by binding of a transmitter in conjunction with intracellular kinases, and GTP-binding regulates others. K+ channels are involved in brain signaling and heart rhythm creation in eukaryotic cells, operate as effectors in signal transduction pathways involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and may play a role in target cell lysis by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. They are involved in the maintenance of ionic homeostasis in bacterial cells.