About PTEN / Phosphatase and Tensin:
Phosphatase and Tensin (PTEN) gene was discovered in the 90s. PTEN is a gene that is part of the makeup for chromosome 10 and creates tumor suppressing enzymes.
These enzymes are found in almost all tissues throughout the body and act as a regulator for cell division. This means it is naturally occurring suppressant for rapidly multiplying cells such as cancer. The physiology of this enzyme means that when cells rapidly multiply it will bind itself to other PTEN enzymes and attack the cells to keep them under control. The enzyme has other functions within cells too, however, the tumor suppressing function is arguably its most important function.
Phosphatase and Tensin Mechanism
This enzyme works by using a specialized process called apoptosis. This is a process where the enzyme binds to the reproducing cells and tells the cells to self-destruct, hence why it is used in the treatment of tumor shrinking. Studies also suggest that the same enzyme prevents cell migration and adhesions within the body.
PTEN was first discovered and used as a tumor suppressant, however in more recent times, it has been used as a metabolic regulator due to its influence on the releasing of insulin. Studies have described PTEN as a circuit breaker that leads to a more stable release of insulin and moderator of metabolic rates in mammals.
However, despite the revelation that PTEN can help as a metabolic regulator, it is still being used in the treatments of many cancer tumours.