p53 is one of the most well-known tumor suppressor genes. In addition, recent research has found that p53 can be used to diagnose cancer, and it may have a role in inhibiting cancer progression.
Mechanism of p53
The protein p53 is primarily known for its tumor suppression function.
p53 can either induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis and halt the spread of cancerous cells. The way it does this is by inactivating negative regulators of the cell such as MDM-II, which activates caspases to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (MMPD), and CDK, which is necessary for the synthesis of DNA. This action leads to either apocr cell cycle arrest (not mitosis).
Structure of p53
Protein 53 has an N-terminal domain composed of two alpha-helices with a dimerization interface that binds six zinc ions at Zn-II, Zn-III, and Zn-IV. T
This domain is predominantly hydrophobic, with many leucine residues that are likely crucial for the protein's function.
The C-terminal domain has two functional parts: TADs and zinc fingers. The stretch between amino acids 216 to 363 comprises the TADs.
In the human protein, these domains are 79 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) at pH 11.
The zinc fingers are essential for DNA binding as they bind four zinc ions each to form dimers that bind to DNA.
Functions of p53
p53 has the following functions:
●It is a tumor suppressor gene that can halt the spread of cancerous cells.
●It regulates cellular response to stress, such as oxidative stress or genotoxic stresses, for example, when exposed to DNA-damaging agents like UV light or ionizing radiation.
In conclusion, p53 is an important tumor suppressor gene that can be used to diagnose cancer and may have a role in inhibiting cancer progression.