The function of NHP2 (NHP2 ribonucleoprotein) is to be a non-catalytic component of the H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein. It is essential for ribosome biogenesis and catalyses pseudouridylation of rRNA. Part of this is the isomerization of uridine.
NHP2 is a gene that codes for protein. Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 2, and autosomal recessive 1 are diseases linked to NHP2. Telomere C-strand (lagging strand) synthesis and ribosome biogenesis are two related processes in eukaryotes. Annotations in the gene ontology (GO) for this gene include snoRNA binding. RPL7A is a significant paralog of this gene.
NHP2 is essential for ribosome synthesis and the preservation of telomeres. It is a component of the H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (H/ACA snoRNP) complex that catalyzes rRNA pseudouridylation. This entails isomerizing uridine such that the ribose is linked to C5 rather than the usual N1. Each rRNA can have up to 100 pseudouridine ('psi') residues, which may help to maintain the rRNA's shape. TERC, the RNA component of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) holoenzyme, may also need proper processing or intranuclear trafficking.
H/ACA ribonucleoprotein complex subunit 2 is a protein that is encoded by the NHP2 gene in humans. The H/ACA snoRNPs (small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins) gene family includes this gene. SnoRNPs are engaged in several areas of rRNA processing and modification and are divided into two families: C/D and H/ACA.