About NCS / Neuronal Calcium Sensor:
Neuronal Calcium Sensor Protein, otherwise referred to as NCS, is a substantial protein family that operates as calcium-dependent molecular switches. Members of the protein family include Frequenin (NCS1), VILIP-1 (Visinin-like-protein-1), HPCAL4 (Visinin-like-protein-2), hippocalcin, neurocalcin, and recoverin.
Research has shown that overexpression of members of the NCS family, particularly NCS1, can increase the chances of bipolar disorder and varying types of schizophrenia. Despite this, there is also a marked decrease in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Links have also been identified with Autism but also intelligence with the D2 dopamine receptors that encourage curiosity and increasing memory.
Neuronal Calcium Sensor Proteins can regulate signal transduction while showing exceptional conservation of yeast to humans. The homolog fission yeast provides a crucial role in cell growth when experiencing extreme Ca2+ conditions.
Neuronal Calcium Sensor Interactions
There are three distinct interactions you will find with NCS1 that include Kif21a, or kinesin family member 21A.
NCS boasts multiple functions all from a single protein. It provides an array of functionality with diverse performance that includes, but is not restricted to, gene transcription, the growth, and survival of neurons, regulating channels and receptions, and regulating enzymatic activity.
Neuronal Calcium Sensor Structure
Each member of the NCS family has 4 EF-hand motifs. Between these motifs, two or three can bind calcium. There is also an N-myristoyl group, although this is not shared by all family members.
The structure of the protein can vary depending on which family member you look at.
Certain proteins are found in a wide range of organisms and have been reported in at least 264. Besides humans, the NCS protein is also present in cows, dogs, mosquitos, and fruit flies.