MAD2, standing for mitotic arrest deficient 2, is a spindle checkpoint protein that plays an integral role in the human body. The makeup and biological functionality of this protein is integral to the way the body works, and plays a massive role in the way we live our lives,
The mechanism that prevents separation and transition into anaphase is known as spindle checkpoint. This exists primarily as a safeguard against chromosome segregation errors, and delays anaphase until all of the sister chromatid pairs have correctly attached.
There are several interactions that MAD2 shares with others, specifically, binding with Cdc20, in a vital protein-to-protein interaction. This happens until all chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate. In addition to this interaction, MAD2 also interacts with Chk1, which is integral across multiple points of the cell cycle process, and this is one of the key interactions that plays a massive role in the process.
The primary function of MAD2 is to accumulate at kinetochores, and generate a wait signal that functions to prevent the cell from progressing to the anaphase of the cell cycle until the appropriate moment, and this is integral to the process.
This is integral to the whole process, and there is much to think about in the future by way of things like spindle checkpoint signaling, as well as the contribution of other proteins that play a role in the process.