Lymphocyte Antigen

Lymphocyte Antigen

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About Lymphocyte Antigen:

In the immune system of jawed vertebrates, a lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell. Natural killer cells (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity), T cells (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells are all types of lymphocytes (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They are the most common type of cell found in lymph, hence the name "lymphocyte”. Lymphocytes account for between 18 and 42 percent of circulating white blood cells, also known as leukocytes.

Lymphocyte Antigen Function
Because each person has billions of lymphocytes, these cells collectively enable the individual to respond to a wide range of antigens. The antigen receptor repertoire has a wide range of antigen specificities due to variation in the amino acid sequence at the antigen-binding site, made up of variable (V) regions of the receptor protein chains. The V region is linked to an invariant constant (C) region in each chain, which provides effector or signalling functions.

Lymphocyte Antigen Structure
A normal lymphocyte has a large, dark-staining nucleus with little to no eosinophilic cytoplasm in a stained peripheral blood smear. A lymphocyte's coarse, dense nucleus is about the size of a red blood cell (about 7 m in diameter) in normal conditions. Some lymphocytes have a distinct perinuclear zone (or halo) around the nucleus, while others have a small clear zone to one side of the nucleus. Polyribosomes are visible under an electron microscope and are a prominent feature of lymphocytes. Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis, allowing these cells to produce large amounts of cytokines and immunoglobulins.