The liver primarily produces a lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) as part of the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacterial infection or damage. LBP binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacteria's outer membrane. LPS is highly inflammatory and is found in the blood or other bodily fluids when bacterial cells are damaged. It comprises carbohydrate "O-antigens," core oligosaccharides, and Lipid A, a highly immunogenic and hydrophobic lipid.
This gene's protein is involved in the acute-phase immune response to gram-negative bacterial infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid, is found on the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. The encoded protein, in collaboration with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, most likely regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses.Studies on mice have shown that the encoded protein is required for the rapid acute-phase response to LPS but not for LPS clearance from circulation. This protein is a protein family member that includes BPI, plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). Finally, this gene is located on chromosome 20, just downstream of the BPI gene. Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has been studied as a marker of bacterial infections in patients with liver disease. This marker is linked to a higher mortality rate. Furthermore, LBP levels have been studied concerning predicting the outcome of lung cancer and HCV treatment. LBP is a useful tool for clinical and research studies because it is associated with many disease states and complications.