About CCL1/ I-309:
● CCL1 stands for “chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1”.
● CCL1 is a small glycoprotein.
● It is secreted by activated T-cells.
● CCL1 belongs to the chemokines family of cytokines. Chemokines are known for their role in the inflammatory response and immunoregulatory processes.
● CCL1 is part of a larger cluster of similar chemokines, which are located on human chromosome 17.
● CCL1 is structurally related to the CXC group of proteins.
CCL1 is also known as:
❖ I-309; T lymphocyte-secreted protein
❖ Inflammatory cytokine I-309
❖ Small inducible cytokine A1
● CCL1 is considered to be an antimicrobial gene.
● CCL1 has been found present in a number of organs, with the highest presentation found in the colon.
● Other organs where CCL1 is present at significant levels include the brain, the testes, appendix, and gallbladder.
● CCL1 has an established role in cellular aggregate formation in vitro.
● CCL1 has been found in synovial fluids and macrophages in those suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
● CCL1 is able to attract a number of cells by interacting with CCR8; a cell surface chemokine receptor.
● The cells that CCL1 attracts include: monocytes, immature B cells, dendritic cells, and NK cells.
● It is notable that the list of cells that experience chemotactic activity does not include neutrophils.
● Studies have been conducted regarding elevated levels of CCL1 for people suffering from bullous pemphigoid, an ulcerative disorder that is thought to be autoimmune in nature.
● Elevated levels of CCL1 correlate with higher levels of pruritus in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
● The interaction of CCL1 with receptor CCR8 have been found to have an influential role in lymphocytic recruitment in IgG4-SC/AIP. It is believed that this leads to duct-centered inflammation and obliterative phlebitis. This has been noted in patients with type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.
● Peritoneal adhesions are a significant complication in the aftermath of surgery. Studies have found that Anti-CCL1 mAb or a disruption of the CCR8 receptor has shown decreased peritoneal adhesions.
● CCL1 overexpression has been found to enhance granuloma formation following mycobacterial treatment. It has been speculated this happens due to enhancing endoplasmic reticulum stress.
● It has also been theorized that the activation of CCR8 by its ligand, CCL1, may play an important role in a number of illnesses. Illnesses that may benefit from further investigation into this relationship include asthma, multiple sclerosis, and cancers.