CXCL1 is defined as being a chemokine ligand 1. It's a tiny cytokine that’s a member of the CXC chemokine family. Upon first discovery of this cytokine, it was known by man as GRO alpha or GRO1 oncogene. Nowadays, most researchers and scientists simply call it CXCL1.
Other members of the CXC chemokine family that are similar to CXCL1 include CXCL2 and CXCL3.
CXCL1 is found on chromosome 4 along with the other genes that are members of the CXC family. Interestingly, the amino acid sequences for both CXCL1 and CXCL2 are 90% the same. It is considered a small cytokine, especially when compared to other cytokines in other chemokine families.
Mechanism & Interactions
Melanoma cells are the primary producers of CXCL1 in human bodies. Most notably, it is the macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells within the melanoma cells that express CXCL1. This cytokine is said to work and interact with cells in the spinal cord to help with its development. Not only that, but CXCL1 also possesses a key role in various other processes in the body, such as; angiogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, arteriogenesis, and tumorigenesis.
In order for CXCL1 to produce its effects, it needs to bind to a receptor. The receptor for this cytokine is the chemokine receptor CXCR2. When binding is complete, the CXCR2 receptor sends signals throughout the body. Both CXCL2 and CXCL3 also bind to chemokine receptor CXCR2. CXCL2 acts as a mobilizer for nearby cells, while CXCL3 mainly helps with cell migration and adhesion.
The CXCL2 cytokine is produced by macrophages and monocytes and helps with the chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and hematopoietic stem cells.
There are many different functions of CXCL1 and other members of the CXC family. As previously stated, this cytokine works to help the spinal cord develop properly. This is done because it prevents and slows down the movement in oligodendrocyte precursors.
Along with this, CXCL1 also helps with the production and formation of new blood cells from pre-existing ones. This process is described as angiogenesis. Similarly, this cytokine also functions to help with arteriogenesis - the growth of arterial vessels in diameter.
There have been studies conducted using various test subjects to see how CXCL1 helps with multiple sclerosis. Through these studies, it’s discovered that an increase in CXCL1 production actually helped decrease the seriousness of this disease. Therefore, conclusions have been drawn that CXCL1 also has a neuroprotective function as well.
It’s also suggested that the other two members of the CXC family work with CXCL1 to aid in many immune responses, most notably would healing. This is because the main function of these cytokines is cell migration, which means they bring white blood cells to wounded areas to help the body heal itself. Countless studies have been carried out including all three CXC cytokine proteins, and the most famous of which revolved around airway smooth muscle cell migration. The gist of the study was that CXCL1, 2, and 3 all helped mediate ASMC migration in a number of test patients.