About GLP / Glucagon Like Peptide-1:
GLP (or GLP-1) is short for glucagon-like peptide-1. This is a long peptide hormone that comes from the tissue-specific posttranslational processing of the proglucagon peptide. It is considered an incretin, meaning it can decrease blood sugar levels in a glucose-dependent manner.
GLP has 30 or 31 amino acids as part of its structure. The precise amount varies throughout the body and from human to human. It is released from intestinal L cells following the consumption of nutrients.
Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Mechanism & Function
GLP has various functions in the human body, but the main one is insulin secretion. It binds to receptors in the pancreatic cells, and then couples to G-protein subunits. This increases the secretion of insulin, having a positive effect on blood sugar levels. Blood sugar will decrease, which is shown to be highly beneficial for many Diabetes Type 2 patients. GLP has also been seen to possess regulatory and protective functions in cells throughout the pancreas and digestive system. It ensures B cell insulin stores are replenished, which stops exhaustion during secretion.
GLP also works in the brain to facilitate neurogenesis, and it is seen in the stomach to restrict gastric emptying. The second of these functions is another way to aid blood sugar levels by preventing spikes after eating.
GLP interacts with many cells and receptors in the body. As mentioned above, it interacts with the brain, stomach, and pancreas. You will also find it in different tissues, including the tongue, muscles, kidneys, liver, heart, and lungs.