Gliadins give bread the ability to rise properly in the oven. This is a class of protein that is present in wheat, cereals and grass. It is also a component of gluten – hence the bread rising capability. Gliadins are one-half of the elements that make up gluten. The other half is Glutenins. These are contained in equal measure within the wheat seed.
Gliadin in Celiac disease
Some people are gluten intolerant and for a specific reason. Gliadin is one of three types of water solvable glutenin to which some bodies are intolerant. These are known as coeliac bodies, and the disease is known as celiac. In recent times the diagnosis of celiac conditions is improving.
Broadly three types of gliadin are distinguished by their amino acid sequences in the N-terminal. There are the α, γ, and ω gliadin types. α-/β-gliadins are soluble in low-percentage alcohols, γ-gliadins are a traditional form of cysteine-rich gliadin, and ω-gliadins are soluble in higher percentages, 30–50%, of acidic acetonitrile.
Gliadins are an essential component of gluten, along with glutenin. These proteins are soluble in ethanol and are a strong example of a food derived pathogen. People who experience a celiac condition will be sensitive to α, β, and γ gliadins. People with Baker's asthma are susceptible to ω-gliadins.
It's essential to understand the properties and interactions of gliadins to help prevent the lifelong intolerance of wheat, barley and rye. These food items contain prolamins that can instigate an autoimmune system response in susceptible individuals. This is caused by specific amino acid sequences.