About DKK / Dickkopf-Related Protein:
Dickkopf-related protein is also known as DKK; it is a protein that is encoded by the DKK1 gene. DKK proteins are there to regulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The way it works is that it isolated the LRP6 co-receptor so it can’t get to the WNT signaling pathway to aid it. Dkk1 is the main member of the Dicckkopf family, the other members are DKK2, DKK3 and DKK4, these are the less desirable as they are often sloppy, they are usually referred to as Dickkopf-like protein (DKKL).
DKK has been found to have positive contributions to the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. It has been under investigation to see if it can help with therapeutic strategies within the dentistry and medicine industry. DKK1 has also been found to aggravate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by creating a reduction in β-catenin and an increase in OCT4 expression, this process is key during the anterior morphogenesis of the embryo during pregnancy when the head, heart and forelimbs are developing.
Dickkopf-Related Protein Mechanism
DKK1 can be found all over the body, however, the effect can be different depending on where it is found. Research has shown that when people with multiple myeloma have high levels of DKK1 found in their bone marrow, peripheral blood and plasma it could be associated with the presence of Osteolytic bone lesions. It has been found to help with balding treatments by reversing the effects of DHT treatments of hair follicles on outer root sheath keratinocytes.