About COMMD / COMM Domain Containing:
The COMMD proteins often referred to as COMM Domain containing, describe a category of common proteins in multicellular organisms. These proteins are distinguished by the availability of a particular domain within the proteins' extreme carboxy-terminus.
The family of COMMD proteins comprises ten members. Each of these members has a standard structure – the C-terminal motif. Additionally, the N-terminal region of the members of the COMMD family has no homology with the proteins. The COMMD1 is considered the prototype of the COMM domain.
COMM Domain Containing Function
The COMMD family plays a significant role in the termination of NF-κB. All the protein family members have non-redundant and distinct functions in various physiological processes in the body, such as NF-κB signaling.
The COMMD proteins help regulate the transcription of NF-κB. Specifically, the COMMD1 inhibits NF-Κb, promoting the expression of various products that are useful in major body processes like oncogenesis, viral replication, inflammation, and cell survival.
Additionally, COMMD1 is used in the regulation of copper metabolism. Even though copper in the body catalyzes several enzymes, it can be dangerous if available as a free element in the body. Thus, COMMD1 helps control the intracellular levels of copper in the body. Besides being involved in copper homeostasis and NF-κB pathway inhibition, the COMM domain regulates various body functions such as calcium homeostasis, inhibitions of cell cycle transition, and sodium homeostasis.
The mechanism of the entire COMM domain is not entirely known. However, inferring from the interaction of COMMD1 and copper, it is clear that the protein component interacts with the ATP7B transporter in copper to deal with copper excretion.