About CHGA / Chromogranin:
Chromogranin A, also known as parathyroid secretory protein 1 and CHGA, is a protein that belongs to the granin neuroendocrine secretory family. It is located in the pancreas, within the secretory vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells.
CHGA was first discovered in the bovine adrenal medulla.As a biomarker, its future lies in translational and precision medicine.
The protein, which is also found in mice, is externally identified as OMIM, 11189810 MGI, 88394 HomoloGene, 976 Genecards, and CHGA. Its Entrez code is 1113 while its Uniprot is P10645.
The Chromogranin A protein is found in the islet beta cell secretory granules, and produced by several chromaffin cells including the adrenal medulla, paraganglia and beta cells. It serves as the precursor to the catestatin, pancreastatin, parastatin, vasostatin-1, and vasostatin-2 peptides, which subsequently modulate the neuroendocrine function of the autocrine and paracrine cells. As such, it also induces insulin generation of the associated secretory glands.
Chromogranin A is a biochemical marker for carcinoid cancer, as well as pancreatic and prostate cancer. It is also elevated in pheochromocytoma (PCC) tumors. It has also been identified as an indicator for type 1 diabetes. However, cleaving to the functionally diverse peptides only happens under certain physiological conditions.
Chromogranin medical function
In oncology, the tumors of gastro-enteropancreatic origin remain the most common function, although it is now used for the prognosis of other diseases. The gene is subsequently used to identify the presence of both benign and malignant neuroendocrine tumours. Meanwhile, the CHGA (63-194; 194–214; and 272–295) peptides are shown to be lower in ulcerative colitis patients compared to control biopsies.