Cardiotrophin-1 is a protein often referred to as ctf1 or ct1. It’s also a cytokine, falling under the IL-6 family tree. Cytokines from this family have been subjected to various research throughout time. During which it was discovered they have neuroprotective properties. This means they can protect nerve cells from damage or loss of function.
Cytokines are often referred to as the hormones of the immune system, and they’re involved with the way cells communicate with one another.
The discovery of this protein was seen as somewhat revolutionary given how it functions in relation to the heart. Lots of research has been carried out to figure the true potential of Cardiotrophin-1.
The Pathology of Cardiotrophin-1
This protein has links to various issues that can occur within the body. Most notably, it’s strongly connected to heart disease. The levels of ct1 increase in your body when heart disease is present. Consequently, checking these levels is one of the first things a doctor will do when assessing if a patient has heart disease or not.
While general heart disease is the main link, there are also connections between it and certain subdivisions of heart disease. This includes hypertension - or high blood pressure - heart failure, and myocardial infarction.
Mechanism and Interaction of Cardiotrophin-1
Ct1 interacts with glycoprotein 130 or leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor beta heterodimer. Furthermore, in cardiac muscles around the heart, Cardiotrophin-1 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Finally, it is involved in controlling the transcription of DNA. This is because it improves the binding of a transcription faction called NF-kB DNA.
However, NF-kB is found to be active over a long period in inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. This is due to NF-kB controlling many of the genes which are involved in inflammation.
Cardiotrophin-1 is found considerably in multiple parts of the body. Including the heart, skeletal muscle, and the genital organs - namely the prostate and ovary.
The Function & Uses Of Cardiotrophin-1
Upon discovery of Cardiotrophin-1, it was found to have a very important function. Scientists discovered that it could elicit growth in myocytes - muscle cells - within the cardiac region. In essence, this protein can help your heart grow and become more functional and healthy. Research shows that growing the heart slightly, at a normal rate, is good for it. Unlike when heart disease is present, and the heart grows abnormally large, which causes heart failure. Too much Cardiotrophin-1 can result in this, but the right amount can almost trick your heat into being more productive and pumping blood around your body.
When levels of Cardiotrophin-1 were altered and slightly increased in animals, it found that heart damage was repaired slightly. Furthermore, Cardiotrophin-1 was shown to help boost blood flow in these heart disease ridden animals too.
The function of ct1 is to help grow the cardiac muscles, so they’re temporarily longer and wider. In conjunction with this, the blood vessels next to these new muscle fibres also grow, leading to more blood pumping. This causes extreme improvements in the functionality and performance of the heart in test subjects.
When the Cardiotrophin-1 levels are decreased, the heart returns to its normal size and shape.