Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 6 (CCL6) is a cytokine in the CC chemokine family that is present in rodents. It is also known as C10, and the protein consists of 95 amino acids. In mice, it is located on chromosome 11. CCL6 is expressed in neutrophil and macrophage lineages in mice. Under conditions suitable for myeloid cell differentiation CCL6 can be greatly induced and it is also expressed in bone marrow cultures stimulated with GM-CSF, another cytokine. CCL6 is reduced in activated T cell lines and can be induced in mouse lungs by interleukin 13. The cell surface receptor for CCL6 is probably the CCR1 chemokine receptor. It binds to CCR1, CCR2, and CCR3 receptors.
CCL6 has been observed as localized to monocular cells and muscle fibres, which suggests that dystrophic muscle might play a role in chemotaxis. The C10 gene has four exons and its second has 48 nucleotides.
CCL6 molecular functions include CCR chemokine receptor binding, as well as chemokine activity. The biological processes of CCL6 include:
cellular response to interferon-gamma
cellular response to interleukin-1
cellular response to tumor necrosis factor
chemokine-mediated signaling pathway
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
positive regulation of GTPase activity
When lethal septic peritonitis met with an overexpression of CCL6 in a mouse model, mortality was reduced to zero through IFN-γ producing NK cells and DCs. Increased expression of CCL6 can be observed in relation to GI system immune responses, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, along with other chemokines, such as CXCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, and CCL5. CCL6 is a chemoattractant for CD4+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, and NK cells.
Therapeutic indications for CCL6 include control of bacteria. In one study, only 25% of mice were bacteremic 24 hours after CLP surgery when treated with CL10, compared to the control group, where the number was 85%. Recombinant rat CCL6 has been shown to mediate the migration of microglia and astrocytes in vitro. Microglia might release CCL6 for the purpose of cell to cell communication under pathological and physiological conditions of CNS. CCL6 promotes immunity through the activation and recruitment of immune cells. It has been shown to reduce the failure of the immune system during sepsis. Studies show that during inflammatory and remodelling disorders, it is present in large quantities.
C10 has been studied in the healing of wounds. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, it has been observed that C10 expression is present in macrophages of clots and in hair follicles at the edges of wounds. C10, as a strong chemoattractant, could cause an influx of macrophages in healing wounds.
C-10 Mouse Recombinant is produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 95 amino acids. The CCL6 is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques, and it is delivered as a freeze-dried powder. It is shipped at room temperature and, once reconstituted, should be chilled (for a maximum of 7 days) or frozen if kept for future use.