About BIN / Bridging Integrator:
Myc box-dependent-interacting protein 1, known as bridging integrator 1, or BIN1, encodes members of the BAR adapter family. The isoforms encoded by BIN1 have been found throughout the human body, notably in the central nervous system and muscle
BIN1 is involved with numerous processes, including membrane binding and tubulation, cell polarity, vesicle trafficking, transcription, cognition and memory, muscle function, immunomodulation and barrier function, cardiac function, tumor suppression and apoptosis, and senescence.
BIN2 promotes cell migration and motility. It is believed that BIN2 has this impact because of its interactions with cell membranes and podosome proteins. BIN2 mediates membrane tubulation and modulates membrane curvature, as well as inhibiting phagocytosis and impacting podosome formation.
Bridging Integrator Mechanism
As BIN1 is associated with a variety of functions, its mechanism of action depends on its specific function at the time of activity. The muscle-specific isoforms of BIN1 bind to bind to c-Myc and suppress transcriptional transactivation activity, for example. Alternatively, BIN1 can impact cognition and memory by modulating tau pathology, which is why it’s a high-risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease.
BIN1 is known to interact with Phospholipase D1, Sorting nexin-4, and Phospholipase D2.
BIN2 interacts with Rac/Cdc42 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 6, Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 7, SH3GL1, SH3GL2, and SH3GL3, as well as BIN1.
Bridging Integrator Structure
BiIN contains N-terminal BAR domain and has a predicted coiled-coil structure and a C-terminal SH3 domain. Recent studies have shown that the coiled-coil BIN1 BAR peptide is capable of encoding a novel BIN1 MID domain.