About beta NGF :
NGF beta protein or the Nerve growth factor is mainly involved with the maintenance, growth and proliferation of particular target growth neurons. It is one of the first growth factors to ever be described and was first isolated by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen. This was back in 1956 before both became Nobel Laureates. Since then, various biological processes related to the NGF beta protein have been identified, including the full regulation of the immune system.
NGF beta Mechanism
The NGF protein binds with more than two classes of receptors. This does include the low-affinity NGF receptor and the tropomyosin receptor Kinase A. These are both connected to neurodegenerative disorders. During the binding of NGF to TrkA, it increases the homodimerization for the receptor. That causes autophosphorylation for the tyrosine kinase segment. This can either lead to the PLC signalling pathways activation as well as this activation of PI 3-kinase or the P75NT receptor by creating a heterodimer with the Trka.
Research also shows that NGF is circulated through the body within the blood plasma. As such, it is crucial to the overall maintenance of homeostasis.
NGF beta Interactions
The nerve growth factor has a range of interactions. In the past, research has shown that it interacts with p75NTR as well as TrkA. Furthermore, new research has suggested that it may also interact and be stimulated by dehydroepiandrosterone. It is possible that this does act as both an agonist for P75NTR and TrkA while also activating the pathways of NGF. Due to this, it’s possible that this protein does have activities similar to NGF in terms of neurogenesis. Furthermore, ACTH does upregulate expression of NGF in the brain.
Beta NGF Function
You can probably guess from the name but NGF is primarily responsible for growth as well as the survival of nerve cells. Indeed, it is absolutely vital for the survival of sensory neurons, particularly through apoptosis. Further recent studies have also suggested that NGF does regulate the life cycles of neurons as well.
Most crucial functions of NGF include the regulation of the immune system. Through this, NGF is released in high levels of concentration by mass cells. This does cause nociceptive neurons that are nearby to experience axonal growth. Due to this, pain perception increases through areas that are inflamed. More recent studies have found that NGF does play a function in the feelings of romance and love. Indeed, research shows that NGF is higher in individuals who have been in a romantic relationship for less than a year, compared to those who have been together for more than twelve months.
Beta NGF Structure
Originally NGF is 3 proteins with a 7S, 130-kDa complex. When expressed, these are Gamma-NGF, Alpha-NGF and Beta-NGF. The NGF can also be referred to as proNGF which happens to be an NGF precursor.
The gamma subunit plays an important part in this structure. It cleaves the N-terminal that exists within the beta subunit and operates as a serine protease. As such, it is responsible for activating the protein into the typical NGF complex. When referring to nerve growth factor, this is specifically about the 2.5S, 26-kDa beta subunit. This is the only biologically active part of the NGF structure.