About Natriuretic Peptide B:
Natriuretic Peptide B, otherwise known as NPPB or BNP (brain natriuretic peptide), is a secreted protein that functions as a cardiac hormone. It is secreted from the gene of the same name and has a number of biological functions. These include natriuresis, the excretion of sodium in the urine, as well as diuresis, the increased production of urine. These functions help to balance salt and water in the body. Other effects include vasorelaxation, which helps to lower blood pressure, plus inhibited renin and aldosterone secretion. NPPB also plays a part in cardiovascular homeostasis - in other words, keeping the heart healthy and stable.
Natriuretic Peptide B protein is a 32-amino-acid-ringed peptide, which was discovered in 2001. As well as providing various functions within the body, it is also an important marker for diagnosing congestive heart failure (CHF). It is one of four peptides in the same family, which also include atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which is released due to atrial stretching. CNP and DNP were also identified after the first two peptides had been discovered. Both ANP and BNP have antihypertensive effects, as well as natriuretic and diuretic effects. There are higher levels of BNP than there are ANP in myocardial tissue, so it has been studied more.
NPPB has renal, adrenal, vascular and cardiac effects, as well as influence on adipose tissue. The natriuretic peptide system and the renin-angiotensin system have opposite effects to regulate arterial pressure. The kidneys release renin when arterial pressure drops to increase the pressure again by activating angiotensinogen. BNP decreases sodium reabsorption in the kidneys, relaxes vascular smooth muscle, and helps to prevent maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy. It encourages free fatty acids to be released from adipose tissue too.
BNP and NT-proBNP are measured to help diagnose congestive heart failure, among other things. Immunoassay is used to measure them, which is used to test the presence of many macromolecules. The test can be used to check normal levels, which can be used to rule out acute heart failure. However, a raised level doesn't necessarily mean that acute heart failure is present. The levels measured can also be used to diagnose and monitor heart failure, as well as left ventricular dysfunction. Tests for BNP and NT-proBNP are used in various different settings, from emergency care settings to outpatient and clinic services. There could still be further uses to discover, including more accurate knowledge of how BNP levels can influence the prescription of therapy.
BNP is manufactured from E. Coli for use in laboratories and clinical settings. It is used for patients who need to improve their breathing when they suffer from congestive heart failure and helps to lower blood pressure. It's important that clinicians know about any patient's history or kidney disease or heart problems before prescribing it. Anyone allergic to nesiritide or with low pressure should not have it. It is given through an IV infusion to administer it slowly. There are various side effects patients need to watch out for too, including common effects such as headaches and dizziness or tremors.