About B Cell Lymphoma:
The B cell lymphoma is encoded in the DNA of humans by the BCL-2 gene, and is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins. These proteins are known mostly for the way in which they regulate cell death in a process known as apoptosis. They do this either by inhibiting or inducing apoptosis, with the former being referred to as anti-apoptotic and the latter as pro-apoptotic. Historically, this was the very first apoptosis regulator to be identified in any organism.
B Cell Lymphoma Isoforms
The two isoforms of Bcl-2 are known as Isoform 1 and Isoform 2. They are known to exhibit a similar fold, but their ability to bind to the BAD and BAK proteins suggest differences in anti-apoptotic activity for the two isoforms. This is also suggested by the structural topology and electrostatic potential of the binding groove.
B Cell Lymphoma Physiological Function
As BCL-2 is localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria, it is known to play an important role in promoting cellular survival. It also helps in inhibiting the actions of pro-apoptotic proteins. The pro-apoptotic proteins in the BCL-2 family, such as Bax and Bak, normally act on the mitochondrial membrane. This is a means of promoting the permeabilization and subsequent release of cytochrome C and ROS, and those are important signals in what is known as the apoptosis cascade. These pro-apoptotic proteins are in turn activated by BH3-only proteins. They are then also inhibited by the function of BCL-2 and its relative BCL-Xl, as well as additional roles.