About ATG / Autophagy Related:
Autophagy related protein, otherwise known as ATG, is involved in the regulation of dsDNA-induced innate immune responses, and is therefore a very important aspect to physiological immunity and wellbeing in all forms of life.
ATG Function & Structure
It has been shown that atg9a regulates membrane trafficking involved in the movement of STING and dsDNA-induced production of type I IFNs. In general, these autophagosomes target and subsequently take over bacteria-containing vacuoles in a manner which is recognized as STING-dependent. As such, they also mediate the auto lysosomal degradation of invading bacteria.
Similarly, these autophagosomes also target and engulf ubiquitinated ASC, which in turn allows them to mediate auto lysosomal degradation of the AIM2-inflammasome, which is a key way to suppress the dsDNA-induced production of any inflammatory cytokines. As you might imagine, it is therefore an important part of fighting for immunity in many physiological systems.
Autophagy Related Uses
When we look at how these might be used therapeutically, the potential looks very strong. One good example is with DNA vaccination, a method for protecting a given organism against microbial infection and a range of cancers, using the genetic injection of dsDNA encoding, a protein antigen can then effectively stimulate the humoral and cellular immune responses. At the same time, such DNA vaccination of this kind causes an activation of the STING–TBK1 signaling axis, which in turn induces acquired immune responses. The result is the generation of antigen-specific T cells and the further production of antigen-specific antibodies.