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About Allograft inflammatory factor 1:

AIF1 gene expression in testis and spleen is highly observed while weak expression in observed in the lung, kidney and brain. Allograft Inflammatory Factor 1 is detected in activated macrophages which are located in tissues that have undergone inflammation. The levels of AIF1 protein in healthy humans positively correlate with metabolic indicators, such as triglycerides,   glucose levels, fasting plasma and body mass index. AIF1 can be considered as a precise indicator of macrophage activation in the body. AIF1 when detected in serum might be a diabetic nephropathy which is a result of long-term type 1 and type 2 diabetes. AIF1 is located in activated macrophages in the pancreatic islets causes the reduction in insulin emission, though at the same time impairing glucose removal.

Allograft inflammatory factor 1 is a calcium-binding protein found in the cytoplasm in humans  AIF1 gene is induced by IFNs and other cytokines. 3 variant transcripts encode diverse isoforms. There is similarity in AIF1 gene in dog, cow, rhesus monkey, chimpanzee, rat and mouse.  Allograft inflammatory factor 1 functions in vascular inflammation. The contribution to the anti-inflammatory response to vessel wall trauma is due to AIF1 involvement in the negative regulation of induction of vascular smooth muscle cells .AIF1 acts in immune response. AIF1 was detected in cardiac cell diseases and cardiac allografts which AIF1 level of expression in cardiomyocytes and mononuclear cells connected with the severity of cardiac cellular rejection. Consequently, AIF1 demonstrats as a possible biomarker for cardiac allograft rejection.

Allograft inflammatory factor 1 antigen expression in transplanted human hearts is associated with growth and rejection of coronary artery vasculopathy. AIF1 is vital for the existence of pro-inflammatory activity of macrophages. AIF1 induce the production and proliferation of T-lymphocytes and increase lymphocyte migration. In human CAV, AIF1 is produced in T