About ADAM / A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase Domain:
ADAMs, which is short for a disintegrin and metalloproteinase, are a range of single transmembrane and secreted metalloendopeptidases. They are characterized with a particular disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain organization, and belong to the superfamily of zinc protease. The matrix is composed of metalloproteases. These are enzymes that are the main agents that are responsible for extracellular matrix degradation, as well as matrix remodeling. They play vital roles in the development of cells, healing wounds, and in the pathology of particular diseases, like cancer.
When found in humans, not all ADAMs have a functional protease domain. This means that their main biological function will depend a lot on protein to protein interactions. ADAM genes have also been found in animals, as all as green algae, fungi, and choanoflagellates.
A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase Domain Structure
The ADAM family of proteases are known as being metalloprotease disintegrin cysteine rich. The first member of the ADAM family was found as protease shown on the sperm membrane, which is crucial for the fusion of sperm and egg. There have been thirty-four identified members in the ADAM family.
There is a big involvement of ADAMs in a range of cellular processes, from processing proteins, interacting with integrin receptors, as well as signalling molecules. ADAMs also play an important role in the process of transferring information from the cell to the surrounding environment. ADAMs family members play a range of important roles in the development of cells and cell signalling, alongside disease pathologies.
As well as the shedding of cytokines and cytokine receptors, some ADAM family members are involved in neural development, as well as myoblast fusion, alongside other processes in human development.