prospec

GM CSF Human

  • Name
  • Description
  • Pricings
  • Quantity
  • GM CSF Human
  • Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor Human Recombinant
  • Shipped at Room temp.

Catalogue number

CYT-221

Synonyms

CSF-2, MGI-1GM, GM-CSF, Pluripoietin-alpha, MGC131935, MGC138897.

Introduction

Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) was first characterized as a growth factor that supports the in-vitro colony formation of granulocytes-macrophages progenitor cells. It is a pleiotropic cytokine and a member of a family of endogenous cytokines of the hematopoietic system. GM-CSF is produced as a response to immune or inflammatory stimuli by activated cells of the hematopoietic system such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells and also fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. It plays an important role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation, survival and activation of hematopoietic cells such as granulocytes and monocytes ,neutrophiles, basophiles and eosonophoiles, erythroid cells, megakaryocytes and T cells.
Human and mouse GM-CSF have about 56% homology and are species specific. Human GM-CSF is not active on mouse cells and vice versa. It is active on canine and feline cells.
GMCSF is 144 amino acids, 22kDa glycoprotein. It is composed of four bundles alpha helices. Its receptor is heterodimers with a ligand-specific alpha subunit and a betac subunit that is shared with the interleukin IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. Cross-linking the two receptor subunits is required for receptor activation and signaling .
GMCSF has been shown to be involved in maturation, mobilization and antigen presentation of myeloid dentritic cells (DCs) in-vivo or ex-vivo. This function promotes Th1 immune responses, cytotoxcity, anti-angiogenesis as well as allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity. Therefore GMCSF can be used in immunotherapy for the treatment of immune suppressed and immune-compromised patients as well as in veterinary medicine for the same purpose. GM-CSF is also important in regulation of embryo development and pregnancy and specifically in embryo implantation and subsequent development .

Description

Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 127 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 14477 Dalton. GM-CSF is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.

Source

Escherichia Coli.

Physical Appearance

Sterile Filtered White lyophilized (freeze-dried) powder.

Formulation

GM-CSF was lyophilized after extensive dialysis against 2mM sodium phosphate buffer pH= 7.4±0.1.

Solubility

It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in sterile 18MΩ-cm H2O not less than 100µg/ml, which can then be further diluted to other aqueous solutions.

Stability

Lyophilized Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution GMCSF should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C.
For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).
Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles.

Purity

Greater than 98.0% as determined by:
1. Analysis by RP-HPLC.
2. Analysis by SDS-PAGE.

Amino acid sequence

The sequence of the first five N-terminal amino acids was determined and was found to be Ala-Pro-Ala-Arg-Ser.
N-terminal methionine has been completely removed enzymatically.

Biological Activity

The ED50 as determined by the dose-dependant stimulation of the proliferation of human TF-1 cells (human erythroleukemic indicator cell line) is < 0.1 ng/ml, corresponding to a Specific Activity of 11,100,000 IU/mg.

Protein content

GM-CSF quantitation was carried out by two independent methods:
1. UV spectroscopy at 280 nm using the absorbency value of 0.963 as the extinction coefficient for a 0.1% (1mg/ml) solution. This value is calculated by the PC GEN computer analysis program of protein sequences (IntelliGenetics).
2. Analysis by RP-HPLC, using a standard solution of GM-CSF as a Reference Standard.

Usage

ProSpec's products are furnished for LABORATORY RESEARCH USE ONLY. The product may not be used as drugs, agricultural or pesticidal products, food additives or household chemicals.

Background

GM-CSF has similar effects to G-CSF which is widely used as a therapeutic agent in immunosupressed patients mostly to boost production of the myeloid lineage after chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Using GM-CSF was also shown to boost anti-tumor immunity by promoting the maturation of antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and Th1 responses. It was suggested for therapeutic uses in various cancers including follicular lymphoma, acute leukemia and prostate cancer. GM-CSF is particular affective as an antitumor vaccine when used in tumor cells engineered to secret GM-CSF. GM-CSF is also involved in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Another use of GM-CSF is as a vaccine adjuvant and it was also claimed to improve the general health condition of AIDS patients although this is a controversial issue and it was recently found that GM-CSF actually induces the expression of HIV-1in monocytes.  GM-CSF was also found to be effective and is used in veterinary medicine. 

GM-CSF was also shown to play a pivotal role in regulation of embryo development and pregnancy and particularly in embryo implantation and placenta development. 

Abnormalities in GM-CSF production or receptor function were implicated in diseases such rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and alveolar proteinosis as well as in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative diseases.

 

 

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