CSF-2, MGI-1GM, GM-CSF, Pluripoietin-alpha, MGC131935, MGC138897.
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) was first characterized as a growth factor that supports the in-vitro colony formation of granulocytes-macrophages progenitor cells. It is a pleiotropic cytokine and a member of a family of endogenous cytokines of the hematopoietic system. GM-CSF is produced as a response to immune or inflammatory stimuli by activated cells of the hematopoietic system such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells and also fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. It plays an important role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation, survival and activation of hematopoietic cells such as granulocytes and monocytes ,neutrophiles, basophiles and eosonophoiles, erythroid cells, megakaryocytes and T cells.
Human and mouse GM-CSF have about 56% homology and are species specific. Human GM-CSF is not active on mouse cells and vice versa. It is active on canine and feline cells.
GMCSF is 144 amino acids, 22kDa glycoprotein. It is composed of four bundles alpha helices. Its receptor is heterodimers with a ligand-specific alpha subunit and a betac subunit that is shared with the interleukin IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. Cross-linking the two receptor subunits is required for receptor activation and signaling .
GMCSF has been shown to be involved in maturation, mobilization and antigen presentation of myeloid dentritic cells (DCs) in-vivo or ex-vivo. This function promotes Th1 immune responses, cytotoxcity, anti-angiogenesis as well as allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity. Therefore GMCSF can be used in immunotherapy for the treatment of immune suppressed and immune-compromised patients as well as in veterinary medicine for the same purpose. GM-CSF is also important in regulation of embryo development and pregnancy and specifically in embryo implantation and subsequent development .
For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).
Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles.
1. Analysis by RP-HPLC.
2. Analysis by SDS-PAGE.
Amino acid sequence
N-terminal methionine has been completely removed enzymatically.
1. UV spectroscopy at 280 nm using the absorbency value of 0.963 as the extinction coefficient for a 0.1% (1mg/ml) solution. This value is calculated by the PC GEN computer analysis program of protein sequences (IntelliGenetics).
2. Analysis by RP-HPLC, using a standard solution of GM-CSF as a Reference Standard.
GM-CSF has similar effects to G-CSF which is widely used as a therapeutic agent in immunosupressed patients mostly to boost production of the myeloid lineage after chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Using GM-CSF was also shown to boost anti-tumor immunity by promoting the maturation of antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and Th1 responses. It was suggested for therapeutic uses in various cancers including follicular lymphoma, acute leukemia and prostate cancer. GM-CSF is particular affective as an antitumor vaccine when used in tumor cells engineered to secret GM-CSF. GM-CSF is also involved in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Another use of GM-CSF is as a vaccine adjuvant and it was also claimed to improve the general health condition of AIDS patients although this is a controversial issue and it was recently found that GM-CSF actually induces the expression of HIV-1in monocytes. GM-CSF was also found to be effective and is used in veterinary medicine.
GM-CSF was also shown to play a pivotal role in regulation of embryo development and pregnancy and particularly in embryo implantation and placenta development.
Abnormalities in GM-CSF production or receptor function were implicated in diseases such rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and alveolar proteinosis as well as in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative diseases.