IL-32 is part of the cytokine family and contains a tyrosine sulfation site, 3 potential N-myristoylation sites, multiple putative phosphorylation sites, and an RGD cell-attachment sequence. IL-32 expression is elevated after the activation of T-cells by mitogens or the activation of NK cells by IL-2. IL-32 induces the production of TNF-a from macrophage cells. IL-32 pro-inflammatory pathway is activated in response to influenza A virus infection. Dysregulation of IL-32 in myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia modulates apoptosis and impairs NK function.
Induction of TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-6 by IL-32 is intervened by p38-MAPK. IL-32 induced monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is mediated through nonapoptotic, caspase-3-dependent mechanisms. IL32 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. IL-32 is involved in activation-induced cell death in T cells, through its intracellular actions. IL-32 is a cell-associated proinflammatory cytokine, which is particularly stimulated by mycobacteria through a caspase-1- and IL-18-dependent production of IFNgamma.
IL-32 is associated with TNF-a, IL-1beta, and IL-18. IL32 is involved in human rheumatoid arthritis and is a novel target in autoimmune diseases.
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(b) Analysis by SDS-PAGE.