About IP-10 / CXCL10:
● CXCL10 is an abbreviation for the full name of the protein, which is: C-X-C motif chemokine 10.
● CXCL10, like most proteins, has other names. It is also known as Interferon-gamma-induced protein 10, or IP-10 for short.
● It is also known as small-inducible cytokine B10.
● CXCL10 is encoded in the human gene of the same name.
● CXCL10 is a cytokine that is a member of the CXC chemokine family.
● CXCL10 is located in human chromosome 4, along with numerous other CXC chemokines.
CXCL10 has been found to have a number of roles in the human body, including:
❖ Chemoattraction for monocytes/macrophages, T cells, dendritic cells, and NK cells.
❖ CXCL10 is also involved in the promotion of T cell adhesion to endothelial cells
❖ Also known for roles in antitumor activity, bone marrow colony formation, and angiogenesis
● CXCL10 has a three-dimensional crystal structure.
● It has been determined under three different conditions to a resolution of up to 1.92 Å
● With the Protein Data bank, the accession codes regarding the structures of CXCL10 are as followed: 1lv9, 1o7y, and 1o80.
● As a member of the alpha chemokine family, CXCL10 is known to inhibit bone marrow colony formation.
● It has also been linked with antitumor activity in vivo.
● CXCL10 is also a chemoattractant for T cells and human monocytes.
● CXCL10 is also known to promote T cell adhesion to endothelial cells
● Furthermore, CXCL10 is known to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo.
● The results of studies have concluded that CXCL10 may have a role in the regulation of angiogenesis during both inflammation and tumorigenesis.
● CXCL10 produces its effects by binding to the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3.
In addition to the above, CXCL10 has been proven to be secreted by several cell types in response to IFN-γ. The cell types that secrete CXCL10 include:
❖ Endothelial cells
● Along with CXCL9 and CXCL11, CXCL10 is a proven biomarker for the development of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction.
● This suggests that this group of chemokines may have a pathophysiological relation to adverse cardiac modeling.
● Furthermore, in hepatitis C patients, CXCL10 is elevated in baseline pre-treatment plasma levels.
● It is suspected that when pre-treatment levels of CXCL10 are below 150 pg/mL, a more favorable response to treatment is likely for those suffering from hepatitis C.
● Additionally, studies have suggested that anti-CXCL10 treatment may successfully be able to impede the development of inflammatory bowel disease.
● Finally, animal models have also suggested that CXCL10, and its receptor, CXCR3, may have a role to play in the treatment of behavioral changes during type I interferon therapy and virus infections.